[22] Anqi Huang, Christopher Amourda, Shaobo Zhang, Nicholas S Tolwinski, Timothy E Saunders. Decoding temporal interpretation of the morphogen Bicoid in the early Drosophila embryo. bioRxiv 110841; doi:
In review

[21] Katerina Karkali, George Panayotou, Timothy E Saunders, Enrique Martin-Blanco. The architectural balance of the Ventral Nerve Cord depends on the level of JNK signaling activity. bioRxiv 092486; doi:

[20] Prameet Kaur, Timothy E. Saunders, Nicholas Stanislaw Tolwinski. Coupling optogenetics and light-sheet microscopy to study signal transduction in vivo.
bioRxiv 114686; doi: In review

[19] Anqi Huang, Kok Haur Ong, Jean-Francois Rupprecht, Jianmin Yin, Matteo Rauzi, Lars Hufnagel, Maria Leptin, Weimiao Yu2, Timothy E. Saunders. Geometric constraints induce cellular skew and apical-to-basal neighbor exchange in curved epithelial tissues. In revision.

[18] A. P. Singh, R. Galland, M. L. Finch-Edmondson, G. Grenci, J.-B. Sibarita, V. Studer, V. Viasnoff, and T. E. Saunders. 3D Protein Dynamics in the Cell Nucleus. Biophysical Journal 112, 133-142 (2017). Link:

[17] C. Amourda and T. E. Saunders. Gene expression boundary scaling and tissue size regulation in the Drosophila embryo. Development, Growth and Differentiation 59, 21-32 (2017). Link:


[16] Jan W Krieger, Anand P Singh, Nirmalya Bag, Christoph S Garbe, Timothy E Saunders, Jörg Langowski & Thorsten Wohland. Imaging fluorescence (cross-) correlation spectroscopy in live cells and organisms. Nature Protocols 10, 1948–1974 (2015) doi:10.1038/nprot.2015.100 (November 2015).

[15] Matteo Rauzi, Uros Krzic, Timothy E. Saunders, Matej Krajnc, Primož Ziherl, Lars Hufnagel & Maria Leptin. Embryo-scale tissue mechanics during Drosophila gastrulation movements. Nature Communications 6, Article number: 8677 doi:10.1038/ncomms9677 (October 2015).

[14] David M Richards, Timothy E Saunders. 2015. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Different Mechanisms for Interpreting Morphogen Gradients. Biophysical Journal. DOI:

[13] Saunders TE. 2015. Aggregation-fragmentation model of robust concentration gradient formation. Physical Review E. 91. 022704. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.022704.


[12] K. Pan, T. E. Saunders, I. F. Parra, M. Howard and F. Chang. Cortical regulation of cell size by a sizer cdr2p. eLife (March 2014).

[11] J. Erceg, T. E. Saunders, C. Giradout, Damien P. Devos, L. Hufnagel and E. E. FurlongSubtle changes in motif positioning cause tissue-specific effects on robustness of enhancer activity. PLoS Genetics, e1004060 (January 2014).


[10] U. Krzic, S. Gunther, T. E. Saunders, S. Streichan and L. HufnagelMultiview light-sheet microscope for rapid in toto imaging. Nature Methods 9, 730-733 (June 2012).

[9] T. E. Saunders*, K. Z. Pan*, A. Angel, Y. Guan, J. V. Shah, M. Howard and F. Chang. Noise reduction in the intracellular Pom1p gradient by a dynamic clustering mechanism. Developmental Cell 22 , 558-572 (February 2012).

[8] U. Krzic, T. E. Saunders, S. Streichan and L. Hufnagel. Using Scientic CMOS Technology for Fast 3D Imaging with Selective-Plane Illumination. Microscopy and analysis 26 (January 2012).


[7] F. He*, T. E. Saunders*, Y. Wen*, D. Cheung, R. J. Jiao, P. R. ten Wolde, M. Howard and J. Ma: Shaping a morphogen gradient for positional precision. Biophysical Journal 99, 697-707 (August 2010).

[6] A. Andreanov, J. T. Chalker, T. E. Saunders and D. Sherrington: Spin glass transition in geometrically frustrated antiferromagnets with weak disorder. Physical Review B 81, 014406 (January 2010). This paper was an Editor's Suggestion of the month.


[5] T. E. Saunders and M. HowardWhen it pays to rush: interpreting morphogen gradients prior to steady-state. Physical Biology , 046020 (November 2009). Physical Biology chose this paper as one of its "Highlights of the Year 2009".

[4] T. E. Saunders and M. HowardMorphogen Profiles Can Be Optimised to Buffer Against Noise. Physical Review E 80, 041902 (October 2009). Recommended by Faculty of 1000.


[3] T. Pickles, T. E. Saunders and J. T. ChalkerCritical phenomena in a highly constrained classical spin system: Neel ordering from the Coulomb phase. Europhysics Letters 84 , 36002 (October 2008).

[2] T. E. Saunders and J. T ChalkerStructural phase transitions in geometrically frustrated antiferromagnets. Physical Review B 77 , 214438 (June 2008).


[1] T. E. Saunders and J. T. ChalkerSpin Freezing in Geometrically Frustrated Antiferromagnets with Weak Disorder. Physical Review Letters 98 , 157201 (April 2007).

* denotes equal author contribution

Science Outreach Articles

Playing with homemade

A. Singh et al.Doing is understanding: science fun in India. Science in Schools 34, November 2015.

In India, as in many countries, the main focus in science classrooms is on exams rather than musing on the fascinating concepts and understanding of the world that science offers. This can mean that students lose interest in studying science – a problem that is further hampered where there is a lack of facilities, expertise or mentors. We started the ‘Science is fun’ outreach programme to address these problems. The 15-person team, led by undergraduate and research scientists, conducted four workshops with underprivileged children in Indian primary and secondary schools during December 2014 and January 2015. Read the article >>

A crowd at the Hajj, Mecca.
Image courtesy of Fraz Ismat;

T. E. Saunders: The physics of crowds. Science in Schools 21, December 2011.

The physics of crowds is an active area of research in many fields, from public safety to protein interactions. Crowds occur in many places: people entering stadia, traffic jams, animal migrations (e.g. wildebeest or salmon), and molecular crowding inside cells. Timothy Saunders explains why this is interesting to scientists and how to study the phenomenon in class. Read the article >>

Latest Lab News

16 Scientists Awarded NRF Fellowships

"...Timothy Saunders, a post-doctoral researcher in biophysics and developmental biology at the prestigious European Molecular Biology Lab (EMBL Heidelberg) said: "Understanding how embryos compensate for variability, for example, temperature changes, is a major challenge in developmental biology. A multitude of mechanisms, from gene regulatory networks to mechanical feedback, ensure robust development."

"...These new Singapore NRF Fellows will begin their research shortly in their respective host institutions in Singapore." Read the article >>


The Saunders Lab is always looking for qualified individuals to join our group. Contact Timothy Saunders at dbsste "at"

Contact Us

Mechanobiology Institute, Singapore (MBI)
National University of Singapore T-Lab,
#10-01 5A Engineering Drive 1
Singapore 117411

Telephone: +65 66011552
Email: dbsste "at"